Blockchain Explained Infographic Gallery

Komodo's 2.0 Infographic Contest: 5,000 KMD Grand Prize!

Komodo's 2.0 Infographic Contest: 5,000 KMD Grand Prize!

https://preview.redd.it/0yq7rwnkjdq11.png?width=1500&format=png&auto=webp&s=950dd49d7e1f7f1e421f7074bd030aec064e6ac7
A total prize pool of 7,000 KMD in our infographic contest
Calling all creatives to take part in our infographic contest and compete for a prize of 7,000 KMD. The winning infographic will explain the architecture of Komodo Platform’s technology. Winners will be those who are able to communicate our architecture and tech visually. This contest will run primarily on Reddit, with the exception of resources being posted to Medium and a master twitter thread for submissions on Twitter. You'll find links at the bottom of this post.

Prizes for winning infographics.

Are you a creative designer? Here's what you can win…
  1. A grand prize of 5,000 KMD
  2. Two runner-up prizes of 500 KMD each
  3. Two third-place prizes of 250 KMD each

Prizes for sharing and giving feedback!

Not a designer? That's OK. You can still participate and win! We'll award five lucky winners 100 KMD each for sharing and promoting the contest. Winners will be picked in a raffle. If you'd like to take part click here https://gleam.io/MwMtO/komodos-20-infographic-contest-5000-kmd-grand-prize and share this post with your friends.

Your Goals

  • Create a high-quality infographic that illustrates the genesis of our platform, the working tech that has been created and how Komodo has been built differently, and deliberately, from the very beginning to ensure security, scalability and interoperability. This is why we refer to the architecture, because Komodo was designed to overcome common problems like congestion, governance and attacks that other platforms did not foresee or prevent, from the beginning. This is Komodo DNA.
  • Share your submission far and wide and encourage your friends and followers to vote for you.
  • Encourage feedback, ask questions and make your infographic the best that it can be.

Our Criteria to Judge

Please note that upvotes and shares are not the only criteria we'll use to judge winners. While useful, we will value creativity, good questions and discussion on Reddit highly. When sharing your posts you will score more highly if people comment, provide feedback and are engaged.
  • How well the infographic conveys our working tech, it's core concepts and plans to build on top of it.
  • How well the infographic illustrates our story, purpose and conveys our tech so that it's easy to understand.
  • Constructive discussion, questions and feedback on Reddit that lead to improvement.
  • Sentiment and comments generated across all our social media. This will not include vanity metrics like likes or shares.
  • Upvotes on Reddit for the author's submission post ONLY. All votes will be counted (i.e. doesn't matter which week they were made).
  • Retweets of the submission in our master thread ONLY. Include your handle and a cover image in your submission. This means if you promote yourself on Twitter you ought to promote the tweet with your work in it.

How do you win?

You may submit up to two infographics. By submitting an infographic, you understand Komodo may post and use your submissions on our digital channels during and after the contest. Each infographic must have it's own post.
  • Create a post on Komodo's subreddit using the 'infographic contest' flair.
  • Add the infographic image into the Reddit post.
  • Include your Twitter handle.
  • Include a social media friendly cover image for us to use when we tweet your submission out.
  • Post a link to your submission post here in the comments for all to see.

Contest Timeline Guide (these dates indicative and are subject to change).

  • 7th September. Announcement. If you're reading this on Reddit before the big announcement then well done! You have two extra days before this is announced on Friday.
  • 10th - 21st September. Research and Questions. We will promote the contest, invite questions and requests for resources, in the comments of this master Reddit post (because this means all information and good questions will be visible to all participants).
  • 22nd September. Draft Submissions. Creatives to submit their draft infographics on Reddit. All submissions need to have their own post and then be linked to in the comments of this master post. This is important to remember!
  • 24th - 30th September. Feedback. A period of one week will be devoted to promoting the submissions and asking the community and team to give you feedback.
  • 1st October. Final Submissions.
  • 2nd - 8th October. Voting. A week of promoting your work and at the end we'll count votes, consider feedback and pick our winners.
  • 15th October. Winners Declared. The final decision by judges. Votes and community feedback counts towards judging but do not have final say.

Resources

If you need help please post in this thread, or email [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) with ‘Infographic Contest’ in the subject line.
  1. A list of resources for the Komodo infographic contest including tools to create infographics.
  2. Komodo Platform: Redefining The Architecture Of Blockchain Platforms
  3. A bullet point study aid to help you understand the history of Komodo’s architecture.
  4. Logo Pack https://komodoplatform.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Komodo-Logo-Pack.zip
  5. Mylo's notes on Software & Platform Architecture for Designers in the Infographic Contest
  6. Mylo's Conceptual Model of Architecture
  7. Video: A brief history of our working tech and an animated timeline of the Komodo Platform.
  8. Video: Komodo Atomic Swaps Explained.
Also please let us know if you are, or you know, a good GUI developer because we'd love to hear from them. Ask them to DM ca333#0118 or SHossain#8093 on Discord.

Entries and submissions for the infographic contest. You can click here to see them all in a scrollable thread on Twitter.

25/09/18 - First Round of Feedback

Infographics should use graphical design elements to visually represent the Komodo Architecture Story found here: https://komodoplatform.com/komodo-platform-a-brief-overview/ included in our ‘required reading’. There’s also a bullet point aid: https://medium.com/@benohanlon/bullet-point-aid-to-help-you-the-history-of-komodos-architecture-dced35b29965 you may find useful.
  • We want to stress that the infographic ought to focus on the Architecture story. In the first round we've found many have focused on the five pillars which is a part of it but not the focus.
  • Copy should be short and concise and not dominate the infographic. The idea is to simplify the story and not to copy and paste directly from the story.
  • Colour Palette - avoid heavy usage of the old KMD green and yellow-orange. Would prefer usage of the interim KMD colour palette.
  • Recommended fonts: Montseratt, Roboto, Open Sans, Helvetica, or Arial.
  • Graphical - Imagery should complement the associated copy. Diagrams are encouraged in place of simple icons to explain more complex technology concepts.
  • Interim KMD colour palette
Interim KMD Colour Palette
If you’ve not been included in the first round it’s because the submission hadn’t been made when the team reviewed. Don’t worry though because we’re organising hangouts and further feedback to help.
  • #001 Infographic Link // Reddit Post Link by thesudio. There’s a lot of good points made, however, these would work better if there is a clear narrative and flow to the information being presented. Otherwise, it can be overwhelming and confusing to the reader. The #1 objective is to visually depict the architecture story and how KMD is redefining blockchain platform architecture.
  • #002 Infographic Link // Reddit Post Link by thesudio. We like that there is a clear structure and clear messaging aligned to each of the 5 pillars. However, the infographic should be focused on telling the architecture story vs the pillars.
  • #003 Infographic Link // Reddit Post Link by VolsenVols. Love how you’ve incorporated our existing graphic design elements into the infographic. This is heading in the right direction and the level of copy and content are well balanced. It would be nice to align this closer to the architecture story and to expand on the different layers of our technology using the same style.
  • #004 Infographic Link // Reddit Post Link by dexter_laabo. Needs to tell the architecture story. This looks more like it took information from our current website. “Anonymous” is not a key aspect of our technology that we’re focusing on.
  • #005 Infographic Link // Reddit Post Link by savandra. The visuals are strong but the narrative could be stronger. It would be nice to align this closer to the architecture story and to expand on the different layers of our technology using the same style.
  • #006 Infographic Link // Reddit Post Link by VolsenVols. Team prefers the other submission style in entry #003.
  • #007 Infographic Link // Reddit Post Link by cryptol1. Doesn’t depict the architecture narrative. Inaccurately describes cross-chain tech as “proprietary”. Simplification has the wrong messaging associated, should be white-label focused. This is considered more of a graphics versus an infographic. Needs to be more comprehensive.
  • #008 Infographic Link // Reddit Post Link by pacosenda. We like the unique design style and approach taken. Doesn’t follow the architecture narrative. Should be expanded out as it is a bit short on content with no clear flow or narrative.
  • #009 Infographic Link // Reddit Post Link by jeanetteLine. Great level of detail and thought on the layout and content. Doesn’t, however, cover the architecture story. Would be preferred if the design direction reflects interim colour and style vs. legacy KMD. The roadmap should be avoided. Looks like they borrowed more from the website than the guidelines.
  • #010 Infographic Link // Reddit Post Link by Meyse. Very creative way to explain and layout the content. This could be expanded out more to encompass the entire architecture story. Cross-chain verifications/smart contracts, blockchain bridging need to be incorporated in.
  • #011 Infographic Link // Reddit Post Link by Brenny431. Follows the 5 pillars versus the architecture story. Would prefer stronger visuals and design elements.
  • #012 Infographic Link // Reddit Post Link by ProofDraw. Design elements are good but need to follow architecture story versus 5 pillars.
  • #013 Infographic Link // Reddit Post Link by sayonara_girl. Needs to follow the architecture story.
  • #014 Infographic Link // Reddit Post Link by Limiter02. Good thought has gone into the copy, however, there’s way too much of it. Would prefer stronger visuals and utilizing a more visual storytelling approach. Doesn’t follow the architecture story. Remove the lizard.
  • #015 Infographic Link // Reddit Post Link by piptothemoon. Great thought into visually representing key points. Needs to be expanded out to incorporate the architecture story, but this is heading in the right direction from a visual storytelling POV.
  • #016 Infographic Link // Reddit Post Link by thecryptofoundation. Love the timeline approach, and mostly followed the guidelines and architecture story. Also, like the incorporation of accomplishments at the end. Would like to get the stock imagery used to reflect our interim colour palette. Not all visuals match what is being represented in the copy.
  • #017 Infographic Link // Reddit Post Link by jsteneros. As discussed in the Zoom call, this graphic is really solid but a little heavy on the copy. Would be good to see more visualizations of the info. This graphic hits on some of the important messages (e.g. Komodo is built differently from other blockchain platforms and solves many of the issues that first-gen platforms are struggling with) but it would be great if there was more information about Komodo’s architecture and how Komodo is different from other platforms.
  • #018 Infographic Link // Reddit Post Link by gravigocrypto. This one was also discussed in the Zoom call. Outstanding visuals and overall design. The info follows the architecture story well but could be stronger if the 3 layers of Komodo’s architecture were tied together into one, coherent visual. It’s a challenging task but that’s part of the contest : )
  • #019 Infographic Link // Reddit Post Link by PacoSenda. This is a really creative infographic, which is great! However, we’d really like to see the visuals a bit more in line with fonts and color palette described above in the “First Round of Feedback” section. Also, as with the feedback for many of the infographic submissions, sticking to the Komodo architecture story would be best.
  • #020 Infographic Link // Reddit Post Link by emmanmalaman. The visuals are pretty cool but this one misses most of our core messaging. It would be much stronger if it followed the architecture story and touched on the info provided in this post. There’s definitely potential here but it needs some work.
  • #021 Infographic Link // Reddit Post Link by immimidada. The colors and visuals here are spot-on. It’s also really great that it sets up the problem and then presents the Komodo solution. However, the problem and solution aren’t defined exactly the way we’d like. Check out the architecture narrative to learn more, and try to follow that story a bit more closely.
  • #022 Infographic Link // Reddit Post Link by mohitgfx3. This one is a bit heavy on the KMD logos. We’re really hoping to see a visualization of Komodo’s infrastructure architecture. As with the feedback for many of the infographics, it would be best to re-read Komodo’s architecture story and try to stick to that as much as possible. Using images from the current website is also not a great approach, as we’re preparing to launch a new site in the coming months.
  • #023 Infographic Link // Reddit Post Link by u/sayonara_girl. Some of the visuals are cool! It’s missing the narrative we’re looking for. In general, less copy and more visual storytelling would improve this graphic a lot. We’d like to see a smooth, linear flow of information. Take another look at the architecture story and try to follow that narrative.
  • #024 Infographic Link // Reddit Post Link by brunopugens. This one follows the narrative well! But it’s a little heavy on the copy. It would be much stronger if the architecture was displayed visually, rather than explained with text. Also, the design is cool but it’s difficult to read b/c the perspective of the text is skewed. It’s a really cool idea but might be better to put the text flat for the sake of readability and clarity.

We hosted a round of live feedback sessions via Zoom. The recording is here:

https://soundcloud.com/blockchainists/zoom-call-first-round-of-feedback-for-komodos-infographic-contest#t=3:50

Timeline

The first block in the KMD blockchain was mined just under two years ago, on September 13, 2016 to 9:04 PM. Since then, Komodo has demonstrated a commitment to innovation and established a history of execution.
  • February 21, 2016 — The vision for Komodo Platform is born with jl777’s Declaration of Independence.
  • September 13, 2016 — The first block in the KMD chain is mined.
  • October 15, 2016 — Komodo’s initial coin offering (ICO) is launched.
  • November 20, 2016 — Komodo’s ICO comes to a close with a total of 2,639 BTC raised.
  • January 2017 — The Komodo Mainnet is launched, complete with independent assetchains and delayed Proof of Work security.
  • January 31, 2017 — The KMD coins purchased in the ICO are issued.
  • March 2017 — Komodo’s development team develops one of the first atomic swap protocols.
  • July 2017 — Thousands of atomic swaps are made in a public, observable setting.
  • August 2017 — Private, zero-knowledge trades made possible with Jumblr, Komodo’s native shuffler.
  • October 2017 — Komodo develops a way to make atomic swaps in SPV Mode (“Lite Mode”), thus eliminating the need for traders to download entire blockchains to do atomic swaps.
  • November 2017 — First GUI for Komodo’s atomic-swap-powered decentralized exchange (DEX) is released, making atomic swap trading more accessible than ever before.
  • January 2018 — The mobile version of Agama wallet is released.
  • February 2018 — A public stress test allows 13,900 atomic swaps in a 48 hour period.
  • March 2018Komodo bridges the gap between Bitcoin-protocol-based coins and Ethereum-based ERC-20 tokens, providing support for 95% of coins and tokens in existence.
  • March 2018 — Komodo holds its second annual Notary Node Elections.
  • May 2018 — The world’s first decentralized ICO is held on Komodo Platform.
  • June 2018 — The alpha release of HyperDEX, a new GUI for Komodo’s decentralized exchange, is launched.
  • July 2018 — Komodo enters a partnership with Netcoins, making KMD coins available for purchase with fiat currencies at over 21,000 locations across three continents.
  • July 2018 — Komodo announces the 5 Pillars of Blockchain technology and begins introducing some Komodo 2.0 technology features, like Federated Multi-Chain Syncing and Cross-Chain Smart Contracts.
  • August 2018 — Komodo takes two big steps towards mass adoption, announces a collaboration with Ideas By Nature, an industry-leading blockchain agency, and releases a full briefing on the development on UTXO-based smart contracts.

Achievements

  • Cryptomiso.com is a website that ranks 866 different blockchain projects according to the Github commit history of that project’s most popular repo. Komodo is ranked #1 overall for Github commits over the last 12 months.
  • China's Ministry Research Initiative regularly ranks Komodo in the top 10.
  • Binance CEO highlights Komodo (see this Five Bullet Friday edition for more info).

If you would like to update your post, please edit and add to the post so people can see the different iterations. Entries and submissions for the infographic contest. You can click here to see them all in a scrollable thread on Twitter.

submitted by benohanlon to komodoplatform [link] [comments]

Homelab collective ressources post!

Hey guys!
I'm fairly new to this sub and to having a home lab in general and I found this community to be so kind and helping, I wanted to give back what I've learned. I'm seeing a lot of questions asked around on improvements and on what to do with x extra hardware so I thought it would be nice to have a thread to regroup that.
 
I'll put here some stuff I gathered and the most common questions I've seen, feel free to contribute and i'll update the post along.
 
Latest Additions
 
Homelab Dashboard
Posts about dashboards have been growing lately and here are some of the best that were kind enough to provide us with their sources.
User Screenshot Source
yours truly http://imgur.com/a/GhCNH https://github.com/Gabisonfire/dashboard-q
lastditchefrt http://i.imgur.com/5zQdao4.png https://github.com/d4rk22/Network-Status-Page
_SleepingBag_ http://i.imgur.com/Ql9ZM4W.png https://github.com/jsank/homelabdash
NiknakSi https://niknak.org/extras/sysinfo TBA
DainBramaged http://imgur.com/jYNlUEQ https://github.com/gordonturneBigBoard
michaelh4u https://i.imgur.com/XkZwMKj.png https://github.com/michaelh4u/homelabfrontpage
spigotx http://imgur.com/a/1zMht https://github.com/spigotx/HomeLab2
SirMaster https://nicko88.com/ https://github.com/dashbad/plex-server-status
yourofl10 http://imgur.com/a/AyROa TBA
TheBobWiley http://imgur.com/a/oU6d3 https://github.com/TheBobWiley/ManageThis-LandingPages
0110010001100010 http://i.imgur.com/iwtQcsL.jpg https://github.com/danodemano/monitoring-scripts
mescon & SyNiK4L https://i.imgur.com/gqdVM6p.jpg https://github.com/mescon/Muximux
ak_rex http://i.imgur.com/a/RJkrT https://github.com/ak-rex/homelab-dashboard
 
Or build yours from scratch: PRTG API, ELK, Grafana, freeboard, JumpSquares
 
Some other resources: Custom Monitoring Scripts by 0110010001100010
 
Credits to apt64 for his original post
= Pi specific =
 
= Download Automation =
 
= Virtualization =
 
= Monitoring =
 
= Media Center =
 
= Remote access =
 
= VOIP =
 
= Networking =
 
= File Servers/Storage/RAID =
 
= Cameras =
 
= Documentation =
 
= Dynamic DNS =
 
= Backup =
 
= Creating network diagrams =
 
= Guides =
 
= Misc =
 
That's all I could come up with on top of my head + some research, passing over to you guys so we can get a nice complete list!
 
Let's try and stick with free(or mostly) softwares, let me know if you guys feel otherwise.
submitted by Gabisonfire to homelab [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Origins

Afternoon, All.
Today marks the eighth anniversary of the publication of the Bitcoin white paper.
As a special tribute, I will provide you with a short story on the origins of the Bitcoin tech.
I've been out of the game for many years, however now I find myself drawn back - in part due to the energy that's being added by the incumbents, in part due to information that's become public over the past year.
I haven't followed the Bitcoin and alt coin tech for the past five or six years. I left about six months before (2).
My last communication with (2) was five years ago which ended in my obliteration of all development emails and long-term exile. Every mention of Bitcoin made me turn the page, change the channel, click away - due to a painful knot of fear in my belly at the very mention of the tech.
As my old memories come back I'm jotting them down so that a roughly decent book on the original Bitcoin development may be created.
The following are a few of these notes.
This is still in early draft form so expect the layout and flow to be cleaned up over time.
Also be aware that the initial release of the Bitcoin white paper and code was what we had cut down to from earlier ideas.
This means that some of the ideas below will not correspond to what would end up being made public.
Bitcoin Logo
BitCoin Origins
Six Months In A Leaky Boat
Introduction
I have always found that there’s a vast gulf between knowledge and understanding.
Wherever I looked I’ve found very intelligent folks who had immense knowledge in their subject but with little understanding of what to do with it, how to mould it, how to create something new.
They could only ever iterate incrementally to improve the knowledge in their given field.
Understanding comes from experiences outside of knowledge in a particular subject.
The following story is about a most unique project and the understanding that was used and applied to the e-cash problem which resulted in the experiment called Bitcoin.
It is to show the thought process, stream of consciousness, arguments, examples, concerns and fears that went through our minds has we tussled with this beast and hammered out something that may actually work.
There is no verification of truth here. There is absolutely no evidential proof that I had any part in the project. All evidence was purged in late 2011 - the reason will become apparent. Only (2) should know of my involvement (until now). Take this as just a fictional story if you wish.
Who am I ? I went by the ‘net handle Scronty back then.
scrontsoft.com
I have always been interested in computer and electronic technology since the age of eleven. Seeing what others had made these machines do, and then trying to push it a little bit further out.
Whenever there was a problem to be figured out I would always begin with what the current state of knowledge was - after all, we all stand on the shoulders of all those who have gone before.
Quite often I found that the assumptions folks hold for a particular problem are the things that are holding them back from figuring out a new solution.
So I would begin by questioning peoples basic assumptions on various subjects
This usually resulted in annoying all of these knowledgable folks.
You get the idea.
You see it on every single message board since the mid-nineties onwards.
There’re also a lot of egotistical chips on folks shoulders where you’d find that they’d look down on others and belittle them on topics that they themselves had only just learned a few weeks earlier.
This is particularly true in programming and crypto forums.
Start
A couple of guys worked with an online betting company.
They had a problem.
For punters to use their service they had to provide credit card details and pay for chip tokens.
However, many times a punter would play the online pokey machines, lose all of their money and then reverse the credit card charge saying “It’s unauthorised. It wasn’t me”.
Sometimes the company’s network would not record the funds transfer correctly and so the punters funds were removed from their credit account into the company’s account but no record of it was made on the company’s end - so the punter didn’t receive any play tokens and, again, tried to reverse the charges.
The large credit card issuing companies also actively stopped allowing credit cards to be used for online gambling and began refusing to reverse the charges.
What these guys needed was a way to transfer funds between punters and the online betting companies so that both parties could trust that everything was above board.
That a payment could not be made by mistake and once a payment went through it was unchangeable, irreversible.
(2) had been on the periphery of the cypherpunks group since the mid 1990’s. When I entered the project in early 2008 he had been working on the problem part-time over the past five years. Over the previous year or so he’d been working on the problem full-time. He was writing a white paper for an e-cash system for the online betting/gambling company to use ( or to license out the solution to multiple companies ) plus writing the code for it.
He was attempting to implement a working example of electronic cash.
There were other cryptographers who he was communicating with however it just wouldn’t “work”. There were always too many attack vectors with the solution and even though, from a cryptographic point-of-view, the white paper and code was appropriate, he found it unsatisfactory.
After talking to his friend (3) it was decided that maybe they had their noses too close to the grindstone and that they should find someone who wasn’t a cryptographer to look over the ideas.
The problem is that to find such a person is very difficult. He’d have to be smart enough to understand cryptography (or learn it), also be interested in the subject but also not currently be a cryptographer.
Usually the folks who were smart enough and had an interest were already cryptographers.
Through various IRC (Internet Relay Chat) channels (3) came across me and I ended up being put in touch with (2).
With my work in the Win32 Asm community I’d shown I was smart enough and could figure out the solutions to difficult problems.
Plus I’d made sure my public profile was always dealing with grey-to-white topics (no online gambling stuff).
Request For Help
I was asked to take a look over what had been written in the white paper and see what needed to be changed as the code implementing it just wasn’t working - the pieces wouldn’t fit together or the whole thing would fail if certain pre-conditions in the network weren’t met.
(2) wanted to publish the white paper before the end of the year (2008).
I began reading through the document - understanding very little.
Hashing and encrypting and decrypting and private keys and public keys.
Different types of hashing algorithms, encrypting then hashing and hashing then encrypting.
Oh my!
“Just tell me what I need to change to make it work” - (2) kept asking me.
“I dunno what the [redacted] I’m reading here” - I replied.
(2) thought that maybe he’d made a mistake and he’ll just try and find someone else.
I told him that he’s going about fixing it the wrong way.
“How should it be fixed ?”, he asked.
“Well, first I need to know what I’m reading. So you’re going to have to give me info on the various crypto stuff in here”, I said.
“No no no”, he said. “ If you learn the meaning of the cryptographic jargon you will be influenced by it and would no-longer be the “non-cryptographer” that we need to look over the white paper”.
I told him that without learning the jargon I cannot read the paper in the first place.
Also - as I learn I will understand more and will be able to tell you what you need to change.
If or when it got to the stage that I’d learned too much and also had my nose too close to the grindstone then I could leave the project and he could find someone else to replace me.
He agreed that having me learn a bit about cryptography may be a good idea (:roll-eyes:).
He told me to get started.
I asked where the information was.
He said “Google it”.
I said “Nope. You’ve been working in this area for the past few years so you can give me a link to the websites with the info."
He returned with a list of website links and said to go through that and look at the white paper.
The list had about 109 links in it - bloody [redacted].
One-by-one I began going through the information.
After a few weeks I’d gone through about half-a-dozen papers/websites which hadn’t cleared up anything.
Once three or four weeks had gone by I threw my hands up in disgust and told him “At this rate I’ll be here all year and still not understand all the pieces. You’ve got to filter this down for me. You’ve already read all of these documents and websites so give me a list of the most important docs/websites you think would be helpful in understanding your white paper”.
He came back with a list of about 23 white papers and websites.
“Now list them in the order you think I should read them in”.
He came back with a sorted and filtered list of crypto-docs and websites.
I began reading through them - starting at the first.
Transactions
Given a computer network there had to be transactions sent to a recipient.
The initial white paper was pretty much a shuffling of the various cryptographic e-cash white papers at the time. We knew that when someone wanted to send a payment to another person it would have to be transmitted across a network securely.
But how to solve the double-spend problem ?
A piece of physical paper cash can only be in one place at a time - you cannot double-spend a physical currency note. All current electronic cash solutions relied upon a central server to control the allocation of coin and to make sure no coin could be double-spent.
But if that server went down, or was unaccessible due to a DDOS attack or government intervention ( or someone just tripping over a power cord ) then no more money.
We knew that a coin would initially be minted somehow.
I found most of the methods written in white papers and on websites were rubbish ( Personal opinion here. No disrespect to those who wrote those white papers ).
They either tried to pretend to act as central banks or tried to allow a “mates club” whereby they all agreed who's going to get coin at a particular time.
Kind of like politicians using an "independent" third party to give themselves a pay rise.
We knew that a piece of electronic cash would be minted somehow, however once it was minted how could it be sent to someone else ?
(2) and I went back and forth with a few ideas, going through the physical process of different transaction types one by one and adjusting how a transaction data package would look like.
We began with a single piece of e-cash.
Like a piece of gold, it should be able to cut smaller pieces off of it.
That means by starting with one item we’d end up with two - the piece going to the recipient and the change coming back to the original owner.
I told (2) that when drawn into a diagram it looks like electronic or computer logic gates.
Logic Gates
Except sometimes there can be more outputs than inputs. And in the end it looks like a neural network.
If we had a large piece and were paying that entire amount to someone then the input and output pieces would be the same.
If we had a large piece and were paying a small amount to someone then the input would be the large piece and the outputs would be the amount being paid plus a small piece as change.
As more people are paid we’d end up with a lot of small pieces in our wallet.
If we had a small piece and needed to pay someone a large amount then we could combine multiple small pieces to be equal or larger than the amount to be paid, and refund back to ourselves any change left over.
This means a transaction would have to allow multiple inputs and multiple outputs, with each input signed by the current owners private key and the outputs being the new owners public key.
Transaction Types
One day he came back to me saying his friend (3) wanted to communicate directly with me but he was a super-paranoid fella and I had to encrypt any messages using private/public keys.
It was a [redacted] nightmare.
I had to:
This was all so he could confirm that the message was indeed from me and had not been intercepted or changed.
Then he decided that I’d also have to generate new private/public keys for every single email just in case a previous email had been intercepted.
I told (2) that this just wasn’t going to happen.
I’ve always disliked using command line programs directly and always thought that they should always be executed from a GUI ( Graphical User Interface).
I said “You’re going to be my filter for this project and main conduit in this team. I send emails to you, you communicate with whoever you need to and send their replies back to me. Or you send their requests to me and I reply back through you.
And what’s this annoying command line proggy anyway? What the [redacted] is it doing?
(2) gave me the link to the information - it was in that list of 109 docs/websites but not in the filtered list of 23.
It was to Hal's website where he very clearly explained how something called "Hashcash" worked.
Hals RPOW
From there I went on to Adam's site:
Hashcash
(which was not even in the original list at all).
I read the Hashcash white paper sections until I hit the calculations and my eyes begun to glaze over.
Hashcash
I read the first few paragraphs and knew this was something interesting.
I asked (2) if he could check whether this document was the final version or if there had been improvements/ amendments/ updates to it.
He said he thought I was wasting my time with this and I should continue with the other docs/websites in the list he’d provided me.
I told him that I’m the only one who would know what info is important and to look into the Hashcash origin for me. He came back a couple of days later and said it was confirmed that the public document linked was the final version of the Hashcash paper.
I asked how he could confirm it?
He told me that he’d contacted the original website author Hal and asked him for any updated document and Hal had replied back with the exact same public link.
He’d even copy/pasted Hal’s reply in the email to me.
I said “Wait… What ? …”
“You actually contacted the original author of the reference material ?”
He said “Yep. Who else would I go to to confirm the document, except to the author themselves ?”
I told him it was really quite rare to have someone check with the original author or sources. Most folks read something and take that as fact, or read the reference documents and take those as fact.
If someone read about the Boyer-Moore search algorithm they take it as fact that what they’ve read is the official final solution. I haven’t heard of anyone contacting Boyer or Moore to check for any updates/ improvements/ amendments.
The Boyer-Moore search algorithm is something that went through the rounds on the Win32Asm community forum for a while.
I found this quite intriguing. Even with (2)’s occasional grating personality it would be very useful to have someone who’s prepared to hunt down the original authors like this.
I asked him if he'd contacted the Hashcash author and he said he'd sent emails to every single author of all of the websites/ white papers and only about a dozen or so had ever replied back to him.
I had begun to write up a list of what the various problems were for creating an e-cash system from the other e-cash system white papers and websites I had been studying.
I was still referring back to the white paper (2) had supplied me however it was really just a mishmash of what everyone else had been doing over the years.
Hence why it failed like all of the others.
One of the problems was a trusted time stamp so that folks would know that funds hadn’t been double-spent. Another was the minting of the tokens in the system and trusting the minting source.
If I recall - practically every single white paper out there ( including the one suppled to me ) used a trusted third party as the source for a time stamp and a convoluted method to check it hadn’t been tampered with.
And the minting either used a trusted third party to generate coins on a regular basis or had a network of nodes agree on how many tokens to generate and give to each other.
(2) said that we need to use the trusted third parties because how else can we trust the time stamp and the minting of the tokens.
I told him he was thinking of it in the wrong way.
You’re assuming a trusted third party is needed, just because every single other cryptographic white paper says that’s how you do it.
But you’re also saying that you can’t rely on a trusted third party because that makes a single point attack vector that can bring the whole system down to its knees.
“Remember Sherlock Holmes” I said. “ ‘When you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth ?’.
The assumption of a trusted third party in an functioning e-cash system must be eliminated as impossible for this to work.
So if we cannot have a trusted third party for this, what are our other options ?”
“I have no idea”, (2) replied. “Do you believe this proof-of-work thing you’re looking into can be used for this somehow ?”.
“I dunno. It definitely has some possibilities. It’s made for making sure the data being sent and received comes from a known trusted source and that it hasn’t been tampered with”.
It forces the user computer to generate a hash of the data to find a hash with a prepended number of zeroes. If the hash isn’t found it increments a value and hashes again. It just keeps repeating until a hash is found with the correct number of prepended zeroes.
This means that the user computer has to spend time working on the hashes until it finds one and only then can it stop.
It was designed to eliminate the email spam problem that we all have because a spam-sender would need to use a lot of computing resources to generate hashes for all the emails sent out ( the data that’s hashed includes the recipients email address so a new hash is required for every single email recipient ).
It also has a throttle so that the difficulty in generating a hash can be increased over time as the general computing hardware improves.
The minting problem is also sorted due to the electricity used in generating a hash can be used to mint the e-cash and put it into circulation.
Effectively - the real fiat-currency cost (via electricity consumed) of generating the valid hash is how much e-cash is given to that minter.
It also sets what the price of the minted e-cash should be, as there is a direct correlation between a real-world electricity bill and the digital e-cash amount minted.
Taking the time used to generate the hash with how much energy the cpu used during the generation ( only the time spent on hashing - not other computing resources ) with the local electricity costs of the suburb/county/province/state/nation the minter resides within, then each minter could have a locally-adjusted e-cash value added to their account.
It would mean that someone minting in a country with cheap electricity due to state-subsidised support would receive less e-cash because less real-world fiat currency was expended in the generation of the hash.
So now we had a mechanism in which this e-cash would work.
I'll stop this story here for now and post a follow-up depending upon its reception.
The follow-up will contain some of the details of how the idea of a chain of blocks came about, plus some of the tech that was left out of the initial white paper and public code release ( it was, after all, just the first experiment to check whether this tech would actually work ).
Bitcoin Origins - part 2
As a side-note:
When you read the Bitcoin white paper again, the Introduction, Calculation, Conclusion and References sections were written and edited by (2) and (3).
The Transactions, Timestamp Server, Proof-of-Work, Network, Incentive, Reclaiming Disk Space, Simplified Payment Verification, Combining and Splitting Value and Privacy sections were from text copy/ pasted from emails from me to (2) explaining how each part worked as they were being figured out.
I wrote the Abstract text when (2) asked me to write the Introduction. (2) used it as the Abstract section because he found it too terse for an introduction.
(2) and (3) edited the entire document and removed any double-spaces from it, adding titles to the various sections and adjusting between 2% and 5% for spelling errors and gramma sentence structure.
You can see the original Abstract with double-spacing here: Public Mailing-list Posting
There was a huge misunderstanding between us all during the formation of the white paper which I'll mention next time.
Cheers,
Phil
(Scronty)
vu.hn
submitted by Scronty to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Origins

Afternoon, All.
Today marks the eighth anniversary of the publication of the Bitcoin white paper.
As a special tribute, I will provide you with a short story on the origins of the Bitcoin tech.
I've been out of the game for many years, however now I find myself drawn back - in part due to the energy that's being added by the incumbents, in part due to information that's become public over the past year.
I haven't followed the Bitcoin and alt coin tech for the past five or six years. I left about six months before (2).
My last communication with (2) was five years ago which ended in my obliteration of all development emails and long-term exile. Every mention of Bitcoin made me turn the page, change the channel, click away - due to a painful knot of fear in my belly at the very mention of the tech.
As my old memories come back I'm jotting them down so that a roughly decent book on the original Bitcoin development may be created.
The following are a few of these notes.
This is still in early draft form so expect the layout and flow to be cleaned up over time.
Also be aware that the initial release of the Bitcoin white paper and code was what we had cut down to from earlier ideas.
This means that some of the ideas below will not correspond to what would end up being made public.
Bitcoin Logo
BitCoin Origins
Six Months In A Leaky Boat
Introduction
I have always found that there’s a vast gulf between knowledge and understanding.
Wherever I looked I’ve found very intelligent folks who had immense knowledge in their subject but with little understanding of what to do with it, how to mould it, how to create something new.
They could only ever iterate incrementally to improve the knowledge in their given field.
Understanding comes from experiences outside of knowledge in a particular subject.
The following story is about a most unique project and the understanding that was used and applied to the e-cash problem which resulted in the experiment called Bitcoin.
It is to show the thought process, stream of consciousness, arguments, examples, concerns and fears that went through our minds has we tussled with this beast and hammered out something that may actually work.
There is no verification of truth here. There is absolutely no evidential proof that I had any part in the project. All evidence was purged in late 2011 - the reason will become apparent. Only (2) should know of my involvement (until now). Take this as just a fictional story if you wish.
Who am I ? I went by the ‘net handle Scronty back then.
scrontsoft.com
I have always been interested in computer and electronic technology since the age of eleven. Seeing what others had made these machines do, and then trying to push it a little bit further out.
Whenever there was a problem to be figured out I would always begin with what the current state of knowledge was - after all, we all stand on the shoulders of all those who have gone before.
Quite often I found that the assumptions folks hold for a particular problem are the things that are holding them back from figuring out a new solution.
So I would begin by questioning peoples basic assumptions on various subjects
This usually resulted in annoying all of these knowledgable folks.
You get the idea.
You see it on every single message board since the mid-nineties onwards.
There’re also a lot of egotistical chips on folks shoulders where you’d find that they’d look down on others and belittle them on topics that they themselves had only just learned a few weeks earlier.
This is particularly true in programming and crypto forums.
Start
A couple of guys worked with an online betting company.
They had a problem.
For punters to use their service they had to provide credit card details and pay for chip tokens.
However, many times a punter would play the online pokey machines, lose all of their money and then reverse the credit card charge saying “It’s unauthorised. It wasn’t me”.
Sometimes the company’s network would not record the funds transfer correctly and so the punters funds were removed from their credit account into the company’s account but no record of it was made on the company’s end - so the punter didn’t receive any play tokens and, again, tried to reverse the charges.
The large credit card issuing companies also actively stopped allowing credit cards to be used for online gambling and began refusing to reverse the charges.
What these guys needed was a way to transfer funds between punters and the online betting companies so that both parties could trust that everything was above board.
That a payment could not be made by mistake and once a payment went through it was unchangeable, irreversible.
(2) had been on the periphery of the cypherpunks group since the mid 1990’s. When I entered the project in early 2008 he had been working on the problem part-time over the past five years. Over the previous year or so he’d been working on the problem full-time. He was writing a white paper for an e-cash system for the online betting/gambling company to use ( or to license out the solution to multiple companies ) plus writing the code for it.
He was attempting to implement a working example of electronic cash.
There were other cryptographers who he was communicating with however it just wouldn’t “work”. There were always too many attack vectors with the solution and even though, from a cryptographic point-of-view, the white paper and code was appropriate, he found it unsatisfactory.
After talking to his friend (3) it was decided that maybe they had their noses too close to the grindstone and that they should find someone who wasn’t a cryptographer to look over the ideas.
The problem is that to find such a person is very difficult. He’d have to be smart enough to understand cryptography (or learn it), also be interested in the subject but also not currently be a cryptographer.
Usually the folks who were smart enough and had an interest were already cryptographers.
Through various IRC (Internet Relay Chat) channels (3) came across me and I ended up being put in touch with (2).
With my work in the Win32 Asm community I’d shown I was smart enough and could figure out the solutions to difficult problems.
Plus I’d made sure my public profile was always dealing with grey-to-white topics (no online gambling stuff).
Request For Help
I was asked to take a look over what had been written in the white paper and see what needed to be changed as the code implementing it just wasn’t working - the pieces wouldn’t fit together or the whole thing would fail if certain pre-conditions in the network weren’t met.
(2) wanted to publish the white paper before the end of the year (2008).
I began reading through the document - understanding very little.
Hashing and encrypting and decrypting and private keys and public keys.
Different types of hashing algorithms, encrypting then hashing and hashing then encrypting.
Oh my!
“Just tell me what I need to change to make it work” - (2) kept asking me.
“I dunno what the [redacted] I’m reading here” - I replied.
(2) thought that maybe he’d made a mistake and he’ll just try and find someone else.
I told him that he’s going about fixing it the wrong way.
“How should it be fixed ?”, he asked.
“Well, first I need to know what I’m reading. So you’re going to have to give me info on the various crypto stuff in here”, I said.
“No no no”, he said. “ If you learn the meaning of the cryptographic jargon you will be influenced by it and would no-longer be the “non-cryptographer” that we need to look over the white paper”.
I told him that without learning the jargon I cannot read the paper in the first place.
Also - as I learn I will understand more and will be able to tell you what you need to change.
If or when it got to the stage that I’d learned too much and also had my nose too close to the grindstone then I could leave the project and he could find someone else to replace me.
He agreed that having me learn a bit about cryptography may be a good idea (:roll-eyes:).
He told me to get started.
I asked where the information was.
He said “Google it”.
I said “Nope. You’ve been working in this area for the past few years so you can give me a link to the websites with the info."
He returned with a list of website links and said to go through that and look at the white paper.
The list had about 109 links in it - bloody [redacted].
One-by-one I began going through the information.
After a few weeks I’d gone through about half-a-dozen papers/websites which hadn’t cleared up anything.
Once three or four weeks had gone by I threw my hands up in disgust and told him “At this rate I’ll be here all year and still not understand all the pieces. You’ve got to filter this down for me. You’ve already read all of these documents and websites so give me a list of the most important docs/websites you think would be helpful in understanding your white paper”.
He came back with a list of about 23 white papers and websites.
“Now list them in the order you think I should read them in”.
He came back with a sorted and filtered list of crypto-docs and websites.
I began reading through them - starting at the first.
Transactions
Given a computer network there had to be transactions sent to a recipient.
The initial white paper was pretty much a shuffling of the various cryptographic e-cash white papers at the time. We knew that when someone wanted to send a payment to another person it would have to be transmitted across a network securely.
But how to solve the double-spend problem ?
A piece of physical paper cash can only be in one place at a time - you cannot double-spend a physical currency note. All current electronic cash solutions relied upon a central server to control the allocation of coin and to make sure no coin could be double-spent.
But if that server went down, or was unaccessible due to a DDOS attack or government intervention ( or someone just tripping over a power cord ) then no more money.
We knew that a coin would initially be minted somehow.
I found most of the methods written in white papers and on websites were rubbish ( Personal opinion here. No disrespect to those who wrote those white papers ).
They either tried to pretend to act as central banks or tried to allow a “mates club” whereby they all agreed who's going to get coin at a particular time.
Kind of like politicians using an "independent" third party to give themselves a pay rise.
We knew that a piece of electronic cash would be minted somehow, however once it was minted how could it be sent to someone else ?
(2) and I went back and forth with a few ideas, going through the physical process of different transaction types one by one and adjusting how a transaction data package would look like.
We began with a single piece of e-cash.
Like a piece of gold, it should be able to cut smaller pieces off of it.
That means by starting with one item we’d end up with two - the piece going to the recipient and the change coming back to the original owner.
I told (2) that when drawn into a diagram it looks like electronic or computer logic gates.
Logic Gates
Except sometimes there can be more outputs than inputs. And in the end it looks like a neural network.
If we had a large piece and were paying that entire amount to someone then the input and output pieces would be the same.
If we had a large piece and were paying a small amount to someone then the input would be the large piece and the outputs would be the amount being paid plus a small piece as change.
As more people are paid we’d end up with a lot of small pieces in our wallet.
If we had a small piece and needed to pay someone a large amount then we could combine multiple small pieces to be equal or larger than the amount to be paid, and refund back to ourselves any change left over.
This means a transaction would have to allow multiple inputs and multiple outputs, with each input signed by the current owners private key and the outputs being the new owners public key.
Transaction Types
One day he came back to me saying his friend (3) wanted to communicate directly with me but he was a super-paranoid fella and I had to encrypt any messages using private/public keys.
It was a [redacted] nightmare.
I had to:
This was all so he could confirm that the message was indeed from me and had not been intercepted or changed.
Then he decided that I’d also have to generate new private/public keys for every single email just in case a previous email had been intercepted.
I told (2) that this just wasn’t going to happen.
I’ve always disliked using command line programs directly and always thought that they should always be executed from a GUI ( Graphical User Interface).
I said “You’re going to be my filter for this project and main conduit in this team. I send emails to you, you communicate with whoever you need to and send their replies back to me. Or you send their requests to me and I reply back through you.
And what’s this annoying command line proggy anyway? What the [redacted] is it doing?
(2) gave me the link to the information - it was in that list of 109 docs/websites but not in the filtered list of 23.
It was to Hal's website where he very clearly explained how something called "Hashcash" worked.
Hals RPOW
From there I went on to Adam's site:
Hashcash
(which was not even in the original list at all).
I read the Hashcash white paper sections until I hit the calculations and my eyes begun to glaze over.
Hashcash
I read the first few paragraphs and knew this was something interesting.
I asked (2) if he could check whether this document was the final version or if there had been improvements/ amendments/ updates to it.
He said he thought I was wasting my time with this and I should continue with the other docs/websites in the list he’d provided me.
I told him that I’m the only one who would know what info is important and to look into the Hashcash origin for me. He came back a couple of days later and said it was confirmed that the public document linked was the final version of the Hashcash paper.
I asked how he could confirm it?
He told me that he’d contacted the original website author Hal and asked him for any updated document and Hal had replied back with the exact same public link.
He’d even copy/pasted Hal’s reply in the email to me.
I said “Wait… What ? …”
“You actually contacted the original author of the reference material ?”
He said “Yep. Who else would I go to to confirm the document, except to the author themselves ?”
I told him it was really quite rare to have someone check with the original author or sources. Most folks read something and take that as fact, or read the reference documents and take those as fact.
If someone read about the Boyer-Moore search algorithm they take it as fact that what they’ve read is the official final solution. I haven’t heard of anyone contacting Boyer or Moore to check for any updates/ improvements/ amendments.
The Boyer-Moore search algorithm is something that went through the rounds on the Win32Asm community forum for a while.
I found this quite intriguing. Even with (2)’s occasional grating personality it would be very useful to have someone who’s prepared to hunt down the original authors like this.
I asked him if he'd contacted the Hashcash author and he said he'd sent emails to every single author of all of the websites/ white papers and only about a dozen or so had ever replied back to him.
I had begun to write up a list of what the various problems were for creating an e-cash system from the other e-cash system white papers and websites I had been studying.
I was still referring back to the white paper (2) had supplied me however it was really just a mishmash of what everyone else had been doing over the years.
Hence why it failed like all of the others.
One of the problems was a trusted time stamp so that folks would know that funds hadn’t been double-spent. Another was the minting of the tokens in the system and trusting the minting source.
If I recall - practically every single white paper out there ( including the one suppled to me ) used a trusted third party as the source for a time stamp and a convoluted method to check it hadn’t been tampered with.
And the minting either used a trusted third party to generate coins on a regular basis or had a network of nodes agree on how many tokens to generate and give to each other.
(2) said that we need to use the trusted third parties because how else can we trust the time stamp and the minting of the tokens.
I told him he was thinking of it in the wrong way.
You’re assuming a trusted third party is needed, just because every single other cryptographic white paper says that’s how you do it.
But you’re also saying that you can’t rely on a trusted third party because that makes a single point attack vector that can bring the whole system down to its knees.
“Remember Sherlock Holmes” I said. “ ‘When you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth ?’.
The assumption of a trusted third party in an functioning e-cash system must be eliminated as impossible for this to work.
So if we cannot have a trusted third party for this, what are our other options ?”
“I have no idea”, (2) replied. “Do you believe this proof-of-work thing you’re looking into can be used for this somehow ?”.
“I dunno. It definitely has some possibilities. It’s made for making sure the data being sent and received comes from a known trusted source and that it hasn’t been tampered with”.
It forces the user computer to generate a hash of the data to find a hash with a prepended number of zeroes. If the hash isn’t found it increments a value and hashes again. It just keeps repeating until a hash is found with the correct number of prepended zeroes.
This means that the user computer has to spend time working on the hashes until it finds one and only then can it stop.
It was designed to eliminate the email spam problem that we all have because a spam-sender would need to use a lot of computing resources to generate hashes for all the emails sent out ( the data that’s hashed includes the recipients email address so a new hash is required for every single email recipient ).
It also has a throttle so that the difficulty in generating a hash can be increased over time as the general computing hardware improves.
The minting problem is also sorted due to the electricity used in generating a hash can be used to mint the e-cash and put it into circulation.
Effectively - the real fiat-currency cost (via electricity consumed) of generating the valid hash is how much e-cash is given to that minter.
It also sets what the price of the minted e-cash should be, as there is a direct correlation between a real-world electricity bill and the digital e-cash amount minted.
Taking the time used to generate the hash with how much energy the cpu used during the generation ( only the time spent on hashing - not other computing resources ) with the local electricity costs of the suburb/county/province/state/nation the minter resides within, then each minter could have a locally-adjusted e-cash value added to their account.
It would mean that someone minting in a country with cheap electricity due to state-subsidised support would receive less e-cash because less real-world fiat currency was expended in the generation of the hash.
So now we had a mechanism in which this e-cash would work.
I'll stop this story here for now and post a follow-up depending upon its reception.
The follow-up will contain some of the details of how the idea of a chain of blocks came about, plus some of the tech that was left out of the initial white paper and public code release ( it was, after all, just the first experiment to check whether this tech would actually work ).
Bitcoin Origins - part 2
As a side-note:
When you read the Bitcoin white paper again, the Introduction, Calculation, Conclusion and References sections were written and edited by (2) and (3).
The Transactions, Timestamp Server, Proof-of-Work, Network, Incentive, Reclaiming Disk Space, Simplified Payment Verification, Combining and Splitting Value and Privacy sections were from text copy/ pasted from emails from me to (2) explaining how each part worked as they were being figured out.
I wrote the Abstract text when (2) asked me to write the Introduction. (2) used it as the Abstract section because he found it too terse for an introduction.
(2) and (3) edited the entire document and removed any double-spaces from it, adding titles to the various sections and adjusting between 2% and 5% for spelling errors and gramma sentence structure.
You can see the original Abstract with double-spacing here: Public Mailing-list Posting
There was a huge misunderstanding between us all during the formation of the white paper which I'll mention next time.
Cheers,
Phil
(Scronty)
vu.hn
submitted by Scronty to btc [link] [comments]

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